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成人高考英语议论文有哪些写作方法与技巧

时间:2016-12-19 22:16来源:成人高考网 作者:起航学习网 已有: 名学员访问该课程

前言:英语议论文的写作,大多有具体要点(即论点或论据)的限定,所以并不需要如何地纵横捭阖,如何地旁征博引。但是,麻雀虽小,五脏俱全,一篇100来字的议论文,同样必须逻辑严密,结构清晰,语言洗练,必须论有中心,言而有据。

成人高考:英语议论文的写作方法与技巧

英语议论文的写作,大多有具体要点(即论点或论据)的限定,所以并不需要如何地纵横捭阖,如何地旁征博引。但是,麻雀虽小,五脏俱全,一篇100来字的议论文,同样必须逻辑严密,结构清晰,语言洗练,必须论有中心,言而有据。以下笔者试从篇章结构、句子修辞和词汇运用等三个方面来谈一谈写好一篇小议论文的基本方法和技巧。

一、篇章结构

(一)先有规矩,然后才能从心所欲,不逾矩

议论文的写作,住往从正反两方面来论述,且都有其约定俗成的议论模式,即从“主题句一正面论述,反面论述一结论”四大块去营造文章的基本结构(四块论)。例如,某题目要求论述“学校规定‘课间学生只能呆在自己的教室里’对吗?”这一话题。如果作者认为学校的规定不对,他就应该在文章第一块(段)亮出自己的观点:There is currently much discussion about whether students should stay in their own classrooms or not during break times.Personally I believe that—。而第二块应该从正面论述“课间不能只呆在自己的教室里”的理由。比如可以说:I would argue that break times are our only opportunity to choose what we want to do. 第三块则从反面观点,即“课间只能呆在自己的教室里”出发,批驳对方观点或进一步阐述己方观点。例如可以说:Another reason why people say that students have to stay in their own classes at break times is that it would be difficult to organize dinners.最后一块(段)则用不同的语言再次强调已方观点。乍一看去,议论文“四块论”仿佛有“八股文”的嫌疑,但“四块论”符合人的认知规律,所以值得多多模仿和操练。

(二)围绕中心论述,确保论述的内容直接为主题服务

在上例中,“学生课间时不能只呆在自己的教室里”是主题句,论述时应该紧紧围绕它。有的同学在写的时候先说“学生若课间被允许到其他班级活动,就可以交到更多的朋友”,然后又说“交到更多朋友就可以学到更多知识”,“学到更多知识就可以为社会做出更大的贡献”……这种论述方式貌似环环相扣,承前启后,实则是中心涣散的流水账,说到最后,不仅读者会一头雾水,连作者自己都会忘了自己在说什么。

(三)确立并写好论点,并将其置于每一段的段首

整篇文章有整篇文章的中心论点,每一段落有每一段落的分论点。选取论点时要问一问自己:这一论点是否会让自己信服?如果—个论点连自己都说服不了,就要放弃它。段落论点的呈现不能羞羞答答,犹报琵琶半遮面,也不能深藏不露,让读者去总结和归纳,而必须在文章开篇或段落开头就亮出来。论点置于篇首或段首,才能纲举目张,也是确保不跑题的前提。以下两个例子中,第一个结构松散,群龙无首,令读者不知所云;而第二个例子则中心突出,章法严谨。请看:

1.Firstly,it is very convenient in daily life.There are many shops and supermarkets in a city.I can buy everything I need easily in these places.When I am sick,I can easily see a doctor in any clinic or hospital.Transport services are good in a city.when I want to go somewhere,I can take a bus,a train or something else.There are also many kinds of entertainment in a city.Public buildings(such as libraries)and parks can easity be found in a city,too.

2.First.it is convenient and comfortable to live in a city.To begin with,there is good housing in a city,as all the houses and flats are well-equipped with good facilities and surrounded by modern amenities such as places of entertainment,public libraries and parks.

而中心句的写法也有讲究。中心句必须能高度概括所在段落的论据,它的关键词应该在每—个论据中都有重复或适当体现。那种无关痛痒的叙述或说明性的句子,是不适宜用作中心句的。例如:

1.Students always feel relaxed and happy during breaks.(叙述性句子)

2.Break times are scheduled for about 10 minutes.(说明性句子)

以下即是论述“学校规定‘课间学生只能呆在自己的班级里’对吗?”的一篇学生习作:

Although some people believe that students should stay in their own classrooms during break times,I would like to argue that we should be allowed to spend break times in another class.

The most important reason for believing that is that many students have friends in other classes.We spend all day in our own classroom,and break times are the only time we have to spend with other friends.It can become very tedious(令人厌倦的)to have to spend even more time with the same people.

A further reason for allowing student to choose where they spend their break times is that it would stop arguements.If students are forced to spend time with classmates who are not good friends,they can annoy each other.This leads to problems that have to be sorted out by teachers.

Teachers argue that we all should stay in our own classes,because it is then easier to know what is going on.They say that it is difficult to keep track of students when they are walking round the corridors.However,students could be given the chance to choose a different classroom to spend the whole break time in.That would mean that there would not be any students in the corridors.

As I have explained,although it might be a little easier to manage when everyone stays in their own classroom,it would make break times happier for all students if they were allowed to choose where they spent their time.

这篇范文符合“四块论”的基本模式,正反论述兼顾,结构严谨,中心突出。

二、句子修辞

(一)应用修辞,增强说服力

适当采用比喻、头韵(即连续数个单词的头音或头字母相同)、夸张等修辞手法,采用幽默、平行结构等写作手法,可以把道理说得更加透彻,把观点表达得更加鲜明,把平淡的内容表现得更加生动,从而更好地传递信息,增添文采,激发读者的共鸣。例如:

1.Many people have tried a thousand times before they achieve their goals.(夸张)

2.Only a madman would choose to live in a modern city.(夸张)

3.Our life would be like soup without salt or flowers without sunlight.(比喻)

4.The best way is to reduce,reuse and recycle.(头韵)

5.For children.the Internet is another way to waste more hours.(幽默)

6.If you want to earn a satisfactory grade in the training program,you must arrive punctually,you must behave courteously,and you must study conscientiously.(平行结构)

值得注意的是,比喻等修辞格的使用及谚语等的引用关乎作者对英语文化的理解,因为它们在英语中的意义往往与我们的理解大相径庭,很容易误用。只有多多学习,认真分析它们的应用环境,使用起来才能锦上添花。如果没有十分的把握,切不可生搬硬套,否则会适得其反。

(二)表达到位,才能言之成理通常。

作者对自己论述的观点是清楚的,但在将观点传达给读者时,往往因为用词不准确,逻辑欠严密,或因受中国式思维的干扰而令表达不到位,结果使读者如堕五里雾中。作者应站在读者的立场上考虑问题,始终牢记“读者明不明白”才是判断写作是否成功的最重要标准。请看以下几个表达不到位的例句及其改正方法。

1.They gave me what I need,but not what I want.析:want可译为“想要”。从汉语角度看,整个句子是流畅的,但从英语的逻辑上看,want与need的意义极易混淆,因此整个句子意义表达不到位,含糊不清。可以改为:They have given me what I need but not What I often ask for.

2.Maybe there are also some disadvantages of living in a city,but I think they are less important.I feel convenient and comfortable.析:句子后半部分的逻辑关系未交代清楚,令人有“前语不搭后语”的感觉。可以改为:Theere are surely disadvantages of living in a city,too,but they are less important and tend to be de-emphasized.For the sake of the advantages mentioned above,I prefer to live in a city.

3.Different people have different choices.Some people like living in a city and some people like living in a village.析:Choice的含义十分宽泛,因此与后面的like不相称,应改为:Different people have different likes and dislikes.Some like to live in a city,others like to live in a village.

4.The people,the society and so on were quite different from now.析:The people,the society依然不足以让读者完全理解要论述的话题,可改为:The peopIe,the society and other aspects of life were quite different from now.

5.Thieves should be sentenced for what they have done.析:使用sentence未免言过其实,应改为:Thieves should be punished for their wrongdoing.

(三)简洁洗练,要言不烦语言简洁有力。

文风干净利落,是议论文的重要特征之一。应该指出的是,好句子并不以长短论英雄,长句未必不简洁,短句未必不哆咳。作者在写作时,只要力求做到“章无冗段,段无冗句,句无冗词”,就可改变当断不断、拖泥带水的现象。

1.The Are No Good Reasons Why Boys and Girls Should Not Be Treated Equally.析:此为一标题句,此作者滥用双重否定,从而使句子过长。宜改为:Boys and Girls Should Be Given Equal Treatment.

2.For instance,I knew how to communicate with other people and how to look after myself.The most important thing was that I learn to be independent.析:从意义上讲,look after myself与independent关系紧密,可以合在一起。句子可改为:For instance,I knew how to communicate with others and how to look after myself as an independent girl.

3.Moreover,as some girls study harder than boys,they may be even superior.析:moreover后若继续用从句,就会干扰读者的思维。可改为:Moreover,some girls are very dilgent.As a result,they may prove superior to ordinary boys.

4.What I mean to say is that well-intentioned law-makers sometimes make fools of themselves.析:what从句并未提供新信息,故可删去。句子可改为:Well-intentioned law—makers sometimes make fools of themselves.

三、词汇运用

(一)多用书面语,少用口头语

相对口头语而言,书面语更能增添文章的厚重感和读者对文章的信任感。下列每一组句子中,第二句都使用了书面语言,用词更加规范,因而比前一个句子略胜—筹。

1.We still have the social problems.

The same social problems still exist today.

2.For me,there is no need for further protection of woodlands.

As far as I‘m concerned,further protection of woodlands is not needed.

3.With the development of computer technology, commercial information exchange is becoming easier.

Computers have greatly influenced business communication.

4.Everything has two sides and this problem is quite the same.

Everything has two sides and this issue is not an exception.

(二)使用连接词在句子间使用连接词,能使文章脉络更加清晰,逻辑关系更加流畅。

例如:

1.The water was polluted.As a result,the fish died.

2.However,others think we should have junk food.

3.On the other hand packaging can have many disadvantages.

4.Firstly many people die of passive smoking(被动吸烟)and secondly it can aggravate(使……恶化)lung diseases.

相关的连接词还有:On the contrary,all in all,in short,generally,worse still,on the other hand,in conclusion,as a consequence,hence,also,personally,furthermore,definitely,surely,undoubtedly,obviously,additionally,in addition,moreover,consequently,clearly,besides,as well,likewise,in my opinion,for the sake of,last but not the least,to begin with,firstly(first),etc.

很多时候,一些常用的句式或句子也能承上启下,使相关的信息得到巧妙的过渡和衔接。例如:

The main reason is that…

I can‘t agree more.

Another thing we can‘t forget is that…

There is every reason to believe that…

As we all know…

总而言之,一篇好的议论文,总是在结构、逻辑和语言等方面略胜一筹。

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